9 april 2021Okategoriserade
In April 1935, the Turkish government sent a long diplomatic note to the signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne to propose a conference on the agreement of a new regime for the strait and asked the League of Nations to authorize the reconstruction of the fortresses of Dardanelles. In the communication, The Turkish Foreign Minister, Tevfik, Aras, said that the international situation had changed considerably since 1923. Europe then turned to disarmament and an international guarantee of defence of the strait. The Abyssinian crisis from 1934 to 1935, Germany`s denunciation of the Treaty of Versaille and international rearmament efforts meant that ”the only guarantee to protect against the total insecurity of the strait has just disappeared.” In fact, according to Aras, ”the most affected powers are announcing the existence of a general threat of ignition.” The main weaknesses of the current regime were that the collective guarantee mechanisms were too slow and ineffective, that there was no contingency for a general risk of war, and that there were no provisions for the defence of Turkey. Turkey was therefore prepared The Straits Convention was an agreement between the great powers to strengthen the Ottoman Empire.  It was born from the ancient treaty of the city, signed in 1809 between Great Britain and the Ottomans. Turkey, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union have each made their own proposals, which are primarily aimed at protecting their own interests. The British favoured a relatively restrictive approach, while the Turks aspired to a more liberal regime that asserted their own control of the road and the Soviets proposed a regime that would guarantee absolute freedom of transit. The British, backed by France, tried to exclude the Soviet fleet from the Mediterranean, where it may have threatened vital waterways to India, Egypt and the Far East.  In the end, the British admitted some of their claims, while the Soviets succeeded in ensuring that the Black Sea countries – including the USSR – obtained some exceptions to military restrictions on non-black seas.